External HSS Integration

All Clearwater deployments include a cluster of Dime nodes that run the Homestead service. Homestead presents an HTTP RESTful interface to HSS data. This HSS data can be stored in either

  • a Cassandra database located on the Vellum cluster
  • an external HSS, accessible over a standard IMS Cx/Diameter interface.

This page describes

  • how it works
  • how to enable it
  • restrictions.

How It Works

When Clearwater is deployed without an external HSS, all HSS data is mastered in Vellum’s Cassandra database.

When Clearwater is deployed with an external HSS, HSS data is queried from the external HSS via its Cx/Diameter interface and is then cached in the Cassandra database.

Clearwater uses the following Cx message types.

  • Multimedia-Auth - to retrieve authentication details
  • Server-Assignment - to retrieve Initial Filter Criteria documents and register for change notifications
  • Push-Profile - to be notified of changes to Initial Filter Criteria documents
  • User-Authorization - to retrieve S-CSCF details on initial registrations
  • Location-Information - to retrieve S-CSCF details on calls
  • Registration-Termination - to be notified of de-registrations

How to Enable It

This section discusses how to enable support for an external HSS.

Before you start

Before enabling support for an external HSS, you must

Do not configure any Clearwater subscribers via Ellis!

  • Any subscribers you create before enabling the external HSS will override subscribers retrieved from the external HSS, and you will not be able to use Ellis to manage them.
  • After enabling the external HSS, you will not be able to create subscribers through Ellis at all - they must be created through the HSS’s own management interface.

Enabling external HSS support on an existing deployment

To enable external HSS support, you will need to modify the contents of /etc/clearwater/shared_config so that the block that reads

# HSS configuration
hss_hostname=0.0.0.0
hss_port=3868

instead reads

# HSS configuration
hss_hostname=<address of your HSS>
hss_realm=<realm your HSS is located in>
hss_port=<port of your HSS's Cx interface>

Both hss_hostname and hss_realm are optional. If a realm is configured, homestead will try NAPTR/SRV resolution on the realm to find and connect to (2 by default) diameter peers in the realm. If a hostname is also configured, this will be used in the Destination-Host field on the diameter messages, so that the messages will be routed to that host. If just a hostname is configured, homestead will just attempt to create and maintain a single connection to that host.

This process explains how to modify these settings and ensure that all nodes pick up the changes.

Configuring your external HSS

Homestead will now query the external HSS for subscriber details when they are required by the rest of the Clearwater deployment, such as when servicing SIP registrations.

In order to register and make calls, you need to create subscriber records on your external HSS, and the detailed process for this will depend on which HSS you have chosen. Generally, however, you will need to

  1. create a public user identity with the desired SIP URI
  2. create an associated private user identity with its ID formed by removing the sip: scheme prefix from the public user ID
  3. configure the public user identity’s Initial Filter Criteria to include an application server named sip:mmtel.your.home.domain, where your.home.domain is replaced with your home domain - this enables MMTEL services for this subscriber.

Allowing one subscriber to have two private identities

If you try to use an Android SIP client that doesn’t contain an Authentication username field, the client will default to a username like ``1234`` (rather than ``1234@example.com`` - the IMS standard form). To register a subscriber you will have to configure your external HSS so that the subscriber you are trying to register has two private identities (``1234`` and ``1234@example.com``).

The detailed process for this will depend on which HSS you have chosen. Generally, however, you will need to

  1. create a subscriber as usual- with public user identity “sip:<username>@<server>
  2. create two new private identities, one having identity “<username>” and the other with identity “<username>@<server>
  3. associate the public user identity that was created in step 1: “sip:<username>@<server>” to both of the private identities created in step 2.

This should allow the SIP client to register with that subscriber.

Restrictions

  • Since Homestead uses the Cx/Diameter interface to the HSS, and this interface is read-only, the Homestead API is read-only when external HSS integration is enabled.
  • Since Homestead’s API is read-only, this means that Ellis can’t be used alongside a deployment using an external HSS. Provisioning and subscriber management must be performed via the HSS’s own management interface.
  • Clearwater currently only supports SIP digest or AKA authentication; details for other authentication methods are silently ignored from Multimedia-Auth responses. Other authentication methods may be added in future.
  • Homestead currently assumes that private user IDs are formed by removing the sip: prefix from the public user ID. This restriction may be relaxed in future.
  • While Homestead caches positive results from the external HSS, it does not currently cache negative results (e.g. for non-existent users). Repeated requests for a non-existent user will increase the load on the external HSS. This restriction may be relaxed in future.